Half of that production was used to manufacture ethylene glycol for PET production. Within second absorber column 18, the efliuent stream emanating thereto through line 16 from reactor 11 is brought into contercurrent contact with a countercurrent 1y flowing stream of normally liquid solvent capable of selectively removing ethylene oxide from the reactor effluence. The reduction catalysts include mixtures of zinc dust and acetic acid, of lithium aluminium hydride with titanium trichloride (the reducing agent is actually titanium dichloride, formed by the reaction between LiAlH4 and TiCl3) and of iron(III) chloride with butyllithium in tetrahydrofuran..  This places ethylene oxide 14th most produced organic chemical, whereas the most produced one was ethylene with 113 Mt (125 million short tons). Click for automatic bibliography In an ethylene oxide reactor, ethylene is partially oxidized over a silver catalyst to form ethylene oxide.
Other products of ethylene oxide. The heat transfer coefficient on the inside of the tubes should be no greater than about 200 kcal/hr-m2 -° C., preferably no greater than 150 kcal/hr-m2 -° C., most preferably no greater than 80 kcal/hr-m2 -° C. In a preferred application, the effluent gases will be cooled about 20° to 35° C. in the cooling zone, but no more than about 6° C. in the distribution zone, thereby permitting a uniform cooling of the effluent gases and minimizing temperature variations among the many tubes. Conversion to ethylene glycol is also the means by which waste ethylene oxide is scrubbed before venting to the environment. Thus, in-order to prevent them from building up in the system, they are continuously bled off. The use of packing in contiguous cooling sections is shown also in Japanese Published Applications No. Initially, fresh ethylene, methane make-up and oxygen are mixed with recycle gas (recovered downstream). Ethylene oxide is an alkylating agent; it has irritating, sensitizing and narcotic effects.
Thus, a halogenated hydrocarbon, such as ethylene dichloride, may be introduced into the primary reactor 11, While a modifying agent of differing characteristics, such as, for example, a polychlorinated polyphenyl compound, is introduced into the secondary reactor 19.
Ethylene oxide is a colorless gas at 25 °C (77 °F) and is a mobile liquid at 0 °C (32 °F) – viscosity of liquid ethylene oxide at 0 °C is about 5.5 times lower than that of water.
This reaction is carried out at elevated temperature, and beside sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide, calcium hydroxide, barium hydroxide, magnesium hydroxide or carbonates of alkali or alkaline earth metals can be used.
The catalyst packed in these tubes is in the form of spheres or rings of diameter 3 to 10 mm. The rich aqueous absorbate emanating to column 18 from column 22 through line 25 is preferably introduced into column 22 at a point thereof between the points of introduction of the contents of lines 16 and 28, respectively.
The International Agency for Research on Cancer classifies ethylene oxide into group 1, meaning it is a proven carcinogen. , Liquid ethylene oxide can form polyethylene glycols. In the present drawing, the steam preheats the incoming feed gases in a section of each tube 12a which is packed with an inert solid to facilitate heat transfer. Although in the above illustrative detailed description of the invention there has been shown but one reactor as constituting the primary reaction zone, it is to be understood that a plurality of such reactors arranged in parallel or series flow may be comprised within the first reaction zone.
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