henry gurvand emperor of the holy roman empire

Boleslaw I had been a loyal supporter of Otto III, but Henry II's actions caused Boles?aw I to seek new German allies. [373], Bertha gave birth to five children, but two of them—Adelaide and Henry—died in infancy. [4] As the union produced no children, the German nobles elected Conrad II, a great-great-grandson of Emperor Otto I, to succeed him after his death in 1024.

[133] The German dukes and bishops did not come to Henry's rescue, and the rebels began attacking the royal castles.

Henry II almost executed the treacherous prince of Capua, but he relented at the last moment at Pilgrim's pleading.

[211], Henry confiscated Rudolf of Rheinfelden's inherited Swabian estates and ceded them to Bishop Burchard of Lausanne in March. Shortly after gaining the support of the Saxons, Henry arranged for Archbishop Willigis to crown his wife, Cunigunde of Luxembourg as Queen of Germany on 10 August 1002 in Paderborn, in present-day Germany. He died without an heir in 1024, and was the last ruler of the Ottonian line.

Saint Cunigunde of Luxembourg and Saint Henry II, Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, after Unknown artistline engraving, probably 18th centuryNPG D23593. [168][171] The deposition of a monarch by a pope was unprecedented, but the Pope was convinced Henry's extraordinary arrogance could not be punished otherwise. Boles?aw I took control of these territories following the assassination of Margrave Eckard I. Henry II accepted Boles?aw I's gains, allowing the Polish Duke to keep Lusatia as a fief, with Boleslaw I recognizing Henry II as his overlord. He wanted to alter the traditional order of succession to the Bohemian throne in favour of his brother, Bořivoj II. While preparing to counterattack the Byzantine advance, Otto II suddenly died while in Rome, with his infant son Otto III succeeding him.

[129], Bolesław II, Duke of Poland, invaded Bohemia in early 1073, and Henry decided to launch a punitive action against him.

This "Imperial–Church System" reached its climax under Henry II. Though the attempt failed, Boleslaw I was seriously injured.

Claiming dominion over Bohemia for himself, Bolesław I invaded Bohemia in 1003 and conquered the duchy without any serious opposition. [3] Their rivalries caused scandals, culminating in three rival popes—Benedict IX, Sylvester III and Gregory VI—in 1045. Godfrey's independent act was regarded as an insult to Henry's authority in Italy.

A son of Kievan Grand Duke Vladimir the Great, he was vice-regent of the Principality of Novgorod at the time of his father's death in 1015. [86] Lampert's report is not fully reliable, but it is known that Anno was ousted from Henry's court. [322] He addressed a letter to Hugh of Cluny. The Pope appreciated their obedience and appointed Siegfried to hold a reforming synod in Germany. Otto was only 21 at the time of death and had left no children and no instructions for the Imperial succession.

[110] Ordulf, Duke of Saxony, and most Saxon aristocrats remained loyal to Henry, but Ordulf's son and heir, Magnus, joined Otto's revolt.

Henry invaded Hungary, but could not force Peter's successor, King Andrew I, into submission. [169] At Henry's order, they declared the Pope's election invalid and demanded his abdication. Henry II sent Duke Otto I of Carinthia, over the March of Verona to face Arduin, but Arduin successfully defeated Otto's troops at the Battle of Fabrica in 1003. His attacks unsuccessful, Henry II was forced to retreat back to Merseburg in Germany. Between 1012 and 1018 Thietmar of Merseburg wrote a Chronicon, or Chronicle, in eight books, which deals with the period between 908 and 1018. The Byzantines still claimed sovereignty over the Lombard principalities, and the lack of single leader to prevent their advances into Lombard territory allowed the Byzantines to make inroads further north.

In the Ottonian dynasty, succession to the throne had belonged to the Saxon branch, not the Bavarian line of which Henry was a member. Henry IV was buried next to Henry III in the cathedral on 7 August 1111. [167] He held a synod in Worms on 24 January 1076. Returning from his first expedition to Italy, Henry II gathered an army to march against Poland.

[278] Henry was inclined to accept their offer, but his bishops dissuaded him, fearing they would also be dismissed after the Antipope's fall. [53][54] The Pope held a synod which issued a decree, In nomine Domini, establishing the cardinals' right to elect the popes as against election by people and clergy, which had been manipulated by Henry III. ."

Under Otto I and Otto II, the Lombard leader Pandulf Ironhead expanded Western imperial control over central and southern Italy. Encyclopedia.com.

He was succeeded by Pope Sergius IV from 1009 to 1012. [203][213] Frederick could only take possession of the lands north of the Danube, because Rudolf of Rheinfelden's son, Berthold, asserted his authority over the southern parts of Swabia. Earlier in 1013, Henry signed a peace treaty with Duke Boles?aw I of Poland at Merseburg.

During the next part of the offensive, Henry II retook Meissen and, in summer 1005, his army advanced deep into Poland, suffering significant losses along the way. Encyclopedia.com. [168] He excommunicated Henry and released his subjects from fealty in a public prayer addressed to Saint Peter. He insisted on his royal prerogative to appoint bishops and abbots, although the reformist clerics condemned this practice as simony (a forbidden sale of church offices).

Bohemia had previously been under the influence and protection of Germany, with the Polish invasion further increasing tension between Germany and Poland. At Merseburg, Jaromír promised to hold Bohemia as a vassal under Henry II, definitively incorporating Bohemia into the Holy Roman Empire.

Reign as King - Disputed successionIn 1001, Emperor Otto III experienced a revolt against his reign in Italy.

He was absent from the Italian peninsula for over a decade between his expulsion of Margrave Arduin of Ivrea in 1004 and his return in 1014 to claim the imperial title, allowing the kingdom to mostly govern itself. [166], Henry regarded the Pope's words as a clear denial of the sacred nature of kingship. [154] Saxon nobles and prelates also deserted to the royal camp. The imperial monasteries and other clerical institutions became so numerous, donations and secular privileges granted them so regular, that they eventually developed into an imperial bureaucracy. Even his relatives, such as his brothers-in-law Duke Henry V of Bavaria, and Count Frederick of Moselle, revolted against his reign. The Swabian Duke believed he was Otto III's true successor, as he had married a daughter of Liudof, eldest son of Emperor Otto I.

[253] After the bishop persuaded Henry to pledge he would respect the Saxons' liberties, many rebels laid down their arms. [63] Agnes ceded Bavaria to a wealthy Saxon lord, Otto of Nordheim, and replaced Duke Conrad of Carinthia with Berthold of Zähringen in early 1061.

Henry II married Cunigunde of Luxembourg, who later became his queen and empress.

In 1001, Emperor Otto III experienced a revolt against his reign in Italy.

As a result, Mieszko II was sent to Henry II's imperial court in Merseburg as a hostage. In 1003, Henry of Schweinfurt, Margrave of the Nordgau in Bavaria, revolted against Henry II's rule.

When this second revolt failed, Otto II deposed Henry as Duke of Bavaria and sent him into exile under the custody of the Bishop of Utrecht in April 978.

During his reign Henry III dominated much of eastern Europe, kept Germany peaceful, controlled much of Italy, and intervened almost as head of the Church in papal affairs.

Taking advantage of her weakness, Archbishop Anno II of Cologne kidnapped Henry in April 1062. Whereas Otto III had promoted a policy of "Restoration of the Roman Empire" (Renovatio imperii Romanorum), Henry II sought a policy of "Restoration of the Frankish Kingdom" (Renovatio regni Francorum). Bolesław I took control of these territories following the assassination of Margrave Eckard I. Henry II accepted Bolesław I's gains, allowing the Polish Duke to keep Lusatia as a fief, with Bolesław I recognizing Henry II as his overlord. https://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/henry-iii, "Henry III

https://althistory.fandom.com/wiki/Henry_VIII,_Holy_Roman_Emperor_(Merveilles_des_Morte)?oldid=1759296. Henry III (1017-1056) was Holy Roman emperor and king of Germany from 1039 to 1056. Originally appointed by Otto I as Prince of Benevento and Capua in 961, Pandulf waged war against the Byzantines as a loyal lieutenant of Otto II.

[6], Henry II wished to become a monk, and in virtue of his imperial power he ordered the Abbot of Verdun to accept him in his monastery. [81][82] Béla died in an accident unexpectedly and the German army entered Székesfehérvár. Returning from Italy after reclaiming the Italian throne, Henry II launch a military campaign against Poland in 1004 that would last until 1018, spanning three wars and several smaller campaigns. The mission failed and Oldřich imprisoned Mieszko II. Henry and the German bishops wanted to avoid a conflict. He died there on 13 July 1024 at the age of 51, after suffering from a chronic, painful urinary infection. [44], In 1057, Agnes appointed a wealthy aristocrat, Rudolf of Rheinfelden, to be Duke of Swabia and also charged him with the administration of Burgundy. Prices start at £6 for unframed prints, £25 for framed prints. [292] Henry was forced to retreat to Pavia and Matilda's troops recaptured her fortresses.

[314] He allowed the Jews, who had been forcibly converted to Christianity, to return to Judaism.

Pope Alexander II blamed Henry's advisors for his acts and excommunicated them in early 1073. □.

Upon assuming the throne, however, Henry II refused to honour his promise and instead supported the rights of the Bavarians to elect their own duke. While the Duchy of Franconia and the Duchy of Saxony formed the core imperial support, the Duchy of Swabia and the Duchy of Bavaria had grown increasingly rebellious. The rule of Henry II is seen as a period of centralized authority throughout the Empire. His brief "reign" as King of Italy would be the last time a native Italian would reign over Italy until its unification under Victor Emmanuel II in 1861.

To seal the peace, Boles?aw I, then a widower, reinforced his dynastic bonds with the German nobility by marrying Oda of Meissen, daughter of the Saxon Margrave Eckard I of Meissen.

He was succeeded by Pope Sergius IV from 1009 to 1012.

[180] They announced they would elect a new king if Henry was unable to achieve his absolution before the anniversary of his excommunication. On January 30, 1018, Henry II and Bolesław I signed a fourth peace treaty, known as the Peace of Bautzen. They also secured the support of northern Italian aristocrats for Henry.

At the synod, Henry II obtained permission for the foundation of the Diocese. [374] Pope Alexander II made it clear Henry would only be crowned emperor if he abandoned his plan. This caused a sharp raise in conflict with the secular nobility, which forced Henry II to reinforce the position the clergy enjoyed in the governance of the Empire. [156] Pope Gregory VII congratulated Henry on his victory, stating that the Saxons' defeat at Homburg was an act of "divine judgement". Although the dukes of Bohemia had acknowledged the German monarchs' suzerainty, this was the first occasion on which a Bohemian duke was invested in the same manner as the rulers of the German duchies.

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